The position of the Czech language among the other Slavic languages. Norm and codification of the Czech language. Phonetics: Literary pronunciation. Speech sound, morpheme, syllable. Vowels and consonants. Hard and soft vowels and consonants, alternation of long and short vowels. Assimilation. Dissimilation. Accent. Primary and secondary. Spelling: Spelling rules, writing of hard (Y). Rules of writing hard (Y) and soft (I). The impact of the soft vowels on the consonants and consonant groups in the Czech language.
Morphology: Division of words: inflected and uninflected words. Cases and their morphological and syntactic functions. Declension of masculine nouns: animate and inanimate, soft and hard declension. Declension of masculine nouns with endings. Declension of feminine nouns: soft and hard declension, nouns with endings. Feminine nouns without endings. Declension of neuter nouns: soft and hard declension. Declension of adjectives: soft and hard declension. Declension of possessive adjectives.